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Proteins, Antibodies, and Immunoassay kits for irisin on functional study and irisin biomarkers exploration

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Exercise Induces Hippocampal BDNF through a PGC-1α/FNDC5 Pathway.

Exercise can improve cognitive function and has been linked to the increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms driving the elevation of this neurotrophin remain unknown. Here we show that FNDC5, a previously identified muscle protein that is induced in exercise and is cleaved and secreted as irisin, is also elevated by endurance exercise in the hippocampus of mice. Neuronal Fndc5 gene expression is regulated by PGC-1α, and Pgc1a-/- mice show reduced Fndc5 expression in the brain. Forced expression of FNDC5 in primary cortical neurons increases Bdnf expression, whereas RNAi-mediated knockdown of FNDC5 reduces Bdnf. Importantly, peripheral delivery of FNDC5 to the liver via adenoviral vectors, resulting in elevated blood irisin, induces expression of Bdnf and other neuroprotective genes in the hippocampus. Taken together, our findings link endurance exercise and the important metabolic mediators, PGC-1α and FNDC5, with BDNF expression in the brain.

Model of the hippocampal PGC-1α/FNDC5/BDNF pathway in exercise. Endurance exercise stimulates increased hippocampal Fndc5 gene expression through a PGC-1α/Errα transcriptional complex. This elevated Fndc5 gene expression in turn stimulates Bdnf gene expression. BDNF is the master regulator of nerve cell survival, differentiation, and plasticity in the brain. This will lead to improved cognitive function, learning, and memory, which are known beneficial effects of exercise on the brain.

Wrann CD, White JP, Salogiannnis J et al., Cell Metab. 2013 18, 1-11. 10.1016/j.cmet.2013.09.008. [Epub ahead of print]

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The Identification of Irisin in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid: Influence of Adiposity, Metabolic Markers and Gestational Diabetes.

Background: Peripheral action of irisin improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure, with no data on a central role of irisin in metabolism. These studies sought to examine (1) presence of irisin in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and banked human hypothalamic tissue, (2) serum irisin in maternal subjects across varying adiposities with or without gestational diabetes (GDM), and (3) their respective neonate offspring.
Methods: CSF, serum and neonatal cord serum were collected from 91 pregnant women with and without GDM attending for an elective Caesarean section (BMI: 37.7±7.6 Kg/m2; age: 32±8.3 years). Irisin was assessed by ELISA and correlated with biochemical and anthropometric dxata. Irisin expression was examined in human hypothalamus by immunohistochemical staining.
Results: Serum irisin in pregnant women was significantly lower in non-obese compared to obese and GDM subjects, after adjusting for BMI, lipids and glucose. Irisin was present in neonatal cord serum (237±8ng/ml) and maternal CSF (32±1.5ng/ml). CSF irisin correlated positively with serum irisin levels from non-obese and obese pregnant women (p<0.01), with CSF irisin significantly raised in GDM subjects (p<0.05). Irisin was present in human hypothalamic sections in the paraventricular neurons, co-localized with neuropeptideY.
Conclusions: Irisin was detectable in CSF and in paraventricular neurons. Maternal serum irisin was lower in non-obese pregnant women after adjusting for BMI and a number of metabolic parameters. These studies indicate that irisin may have a central role in metabolism in addition to the known peripheral role. Further studies investigating the central action of irisin in human metabolic disease are required.

Piya MK, Harte AL, Sivakumar K et al., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jan 7. [Epub ahead of print]

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Cardiac and skeletal muscle serum irisin responses to with or without water exercise in young and old male rats: cardiac muscle produces more irisin than skeletal muscle.

Aydin S, Kuloglu T, Aydin S et al., Peptides. 2013 Dec 14. pii: S0196-9781(13)00410-5. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2013.11.024. [Epub ahead of print]
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Are Skeletal Muscle & Adipose Tissue Fndc5 Gene Expression and Irisin Release Affected by Obesity, Diabetes and Exercise? In vivo & in vitro studies.

Kurdiova T, Balaz M, Vician M et al., J Physiol. 2013 Dec 2. [Epub ahead of print]

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Plasma irisin depletion under energy restriction is associated with improvements in lipid profile in metabolic syndrome patients.

de la Iglesia R, Lopez-Legarrea P, Crujeiras AB, et al., Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Dec 11. doi: 10.1111/cen.12383. [Epub ahead of print]

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Structure of irisin reveals a novel intersubunit β-sheet fibronectin (FNIII) dimer; implications for receptor activation.

Schumacher MA, Chinnam N, Ohashi T et al., J Biol Chem. 2013 Oct 10. 1074/jbc.M113.516641 [Epub ahead of print]

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Irisin Stimulates Browning of White Adipocytes through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 MAP Kinase and ERK MAP Kinase Signaling.

Zhang Y, Li R, Meng Y, Li S, et al., Diabetes. 2013 Oct 22. [Epub ahead of print]

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Alterations of irisin concentrations in saliva and serum of obese and normal-weight subjects, before and after 45min of a Turkish bath or running.

Aydin S, Kuloglu T, Yilmaz M, et al., Peptides. 2013 Oct 1. pii: S0196-9781(13)00324-0. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2013.09.011. [Epub ahead of print]

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Irisin mRNA and circulating levels in relation to other myokines in healthy and morbidly obese humans.

Vamvini MT, Aronis KN, Panagiotou G, et al., Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Sep 23. [Epub ahead of print]

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A Transient Elevated Irisin Blood Concentration in Response to Prolonged, Moderate Aerobic Exercise in Young Men and Women.

Kraemer RR, Shockett P, Webb ND, et al., Horm Metab Res. 2013 Sep 23. [Epub ahead of print]

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Circulating Irisin in Relation to Insulin Resistance and the Metabolic Syndrome.

Park KH, Zaichenko L, Brinkoetter M et al., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep 20. [Epub ahead of print]

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Common Genetic Variation in the Human FNDC5 Locus, Encoding the Novel Muscle-Derived 'Browning' Factor Irisin, Determines Insulin Sensitivity.

Staiger H, Böhm A, Scheler M et al, PLoS One. 2013 Apr 25;8(4):e61903. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061903. Print 2013.

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FNDC5 and irisin in humans: I. Predictors of circulating concentrations in serum and plasma and II. mRNA expression and circulating concentrations in response to weight loss and exercise.

Huh JY, Panagiotou G, Mougios V, et al, Metabolism. 2012 Sep 24. pii: S0026-0495(12)00332-0. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2012.09.002.

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Expression of the Irisin Precursor FNDC5 in Skeletal Muscle Correlates with Aerobic Exercise Performance in Patients with Heart Failure

Lecker S. et al., CIRCHEARTFAILURE.112.969543, September 20, 2012, doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.112.969543

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A PGC1-a-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis.

Boström et al., Nature. 2012 Jan 11. doi: 10.1038/nature10777. [Epub ahead of print]

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Mouse PeP: a novel peroxisomal protein linked to myoblast differentiation and development.

Ferrer-Martínez et al., Dev Dyn. 2002 Jun;224(2):154-67.

Mapping in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Tissue by
Irisin (42-112), C-terminal (Human, Rat, Mouse) - Antibody (H-067-17)

Western Blot Results

After SDS-PAGE, both the Irisin peptide (12kD Mw, Cat. #067-16) and Irisin (42-112) peptide (8 kD Mw, Cat. #067-17) can be transferred to PVDF membrane and have been detected by Irisin (42-112) (human, Rat, Mouse) IgG (Cat. No. G-067-17) with a diluted concentration at 1: 1500 from the stock (1 µg/µl).

Western Blot Analysis of Irisin immunoreactive bands for human plasma extracted with antibody conjugated magnetic bead

Irisin peptide (12kD Mw, Cat. #067-16), Irisin (42-112) peptide (8 kD Mw, Cat. #067-17) and Irisin precursor (22 kD Mw) can be detected with magnetic bead (MB-067-17).


Irisin, recombinant (Human, Rat, Mouse) EIA Kit (EK-067-29)

ED 50: 5.41 ng/ml
Minimum detection level: 1.29 ng/ml
Linear Range: 1.29-27.5 ng/ml      

  • Min. detectable concentration ~1.29 ng/mL
  • 5x more sensitive than existing EIA/ELISA
  • Less lot-to-lot variation than existing EIA/ELISA
  • Minimal cross-reactivity (~9%) with FNDC5



Irisin (Human, Rat, Mouse) EIA Kit (EK-067-16)

ED 50: 26.53 ng/ml
Minimum detection level: 6.8 ng/ml
Linear Range: 6.8 - 96.1 ng/ml


Irisin Recovery from Human Plasma Samples

     Note: *   Human plasma samples (collected with EDTA) were diluted
                   with assay buffer at 1:10

             **  Human plasma was spiked with three known concentrations
                   of Irisin. Data is presented after the un-spiked plasma value
                   is subtracted.

Irisin (Human, Rat, Mouse) RIA Kit (RK-067-16)

FNDC5, Isoform 4 (Human, Rat, Mouse) RIA Kit (RK-067-18)


FNDC5 (149-196) / c-terminal of FNDC5 (Human, Rat, Mouse) EIA Kit (EK-067-19)

EK-067-29;Irisin Synthesis;Irisin antibody publication;Irisin in Adipo;Irisin&fgf21


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