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Proteins, Antibodies, and Immunoassay kits for irisin on functional study and irisin biomarkers exploration

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Exercise Induces Hippocampal BDNF through a PGC-1α/FNDC5 Pathway.

Exercise can improve cognitive function and has been linked to the increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms driving the elevation of this neurotrophin remain unknown. Here we show that FNDC5, a previously identified muscle protein that is induced in exercise and is cleaved and secreted as irisin, is also elevated by endurance exercise in the hippocampus of mice. Neuronal Fndc5 gene expression is regulated by PGC-1α, and Pgc1a-/- mice show reduced Fndc5 expression in the brain. Forced expression of FNDC5 in primary cortical neurons increases Bdnf expression, whereas RNAi-mediated knockdown of FNDC5 reduces Bdnf. Importantly, peripheral delivery of FNDC5 to the liver via adenoviral vectors, resulting in elevated blood irisin, induces expression of Bdnf and other neuroprotective genes in the hippocampus. Taken together, our findings link endurance exercise and the important metabolic mediators, PGC-1α and FNDC5, with BDNF expression in the brain.

Model of the hippocampal PGC-1α/FNDC5/BDNF pathway in exercise. Endurance exercise stimulates increased hippocampal Fndc5 gene expression through a PGC-1α/Errα transcriptional complex. This elevated Fndc5 gene expression in turn stimulates Bdnf gene expression. BDNF is the master regulator of nerve cell survival, differentiation, and plasticity in the brain. This will lead to improved cognitive function, learning, and memory, which are known beneficial effects of exercise on the brain.

Wrann CD, White JP, Salogiannnis J et al., Cell Metab. 2013 18, 1-11. 10.1016/j.cmet.2013.09.008. [Epub ahead of print]

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Irisin Induces Angiogenesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells In Vitro and in Zebrafish Embryos In Vivo via Activation of the ERK Signaling Pathway.

As a link between exercise and metabolism, irisin is assumed to be involved in increased total body energy expenditure, reduced body weight, and increased insulin sensitivity. Although our recent evidence supported the contribution of irisin to vascular endothelial cell (ECs) proliferation and apoptosis, further research of irisin involvement in the angiogenesis of ECs was not conclusive. In the current study, it was found that irisinpromoted Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) angiogenesis via increasing migration and tube formation, and attenuated chemically-induced intersegmental vessel (ISV) angiogenic impairment in transgenic TG (fli1: GFP) zebrafish. It was further demonstrated that expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9 were also up-regulated in endothelial cells. We also found that irisin activated extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Inhibition of ERK signaling by using U0126 decreased the pro-migration and pro-angiogenic effect of irisin on HUVEC. Also, U0126 inhibited the elevated expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 when they were treated with irisin. In summary, these findings provided direct evidence that irisin may play a pivotal role in maintaining endothelium homeostasis by promoting endothelial cell angiogenesis via the ERK signaling pathway.

Wu F, Song H, Zhang Y et al., PLoS One. 2015 Aug 4;10(8):e0134662. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134662. eCollection 2015.

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Betatrophin levels are increased in women with gestational diabetes mellitus compared to healthy pregnant controls

This article used Phoenix's Irisin Kit

Thomas Ebert, Susan Kralisch, Ulrike Wurst et al., Eur. J. Endocrinol., Jul 2015; 173: 1 - 7

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Circulating irisin is lower in gestational diabetes mellitus.

Phoenix’s irisin EIA kit (EK-067-29) has been used to measure circulating irisin.

Zhao L, Li J, Li ZL et al., Endocr J. 2015 Jul 29. [Epub ahead of print]

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Irisin improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetes through reducing oxidative/nitrative stresses.

Zhu D, Wang H, Zhang J et al., J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015 Jul 27. pii: S0022-2828(15)30020-1. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2015.07.015. [Epub ahead of print]

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Irisin evokes bradycardia by activating cardiac-projecting neurons of nucleus ambiguus.

Phoenix’s  recombinant irisin  protein (Cat. # 067-29) has been used in the study.

Brailoiu E1, Deliu E1, Sporici RA2, Brailoiu GC3, Physiol Rep. 2015 Jun;3(6). pii: e12419. doi: 10.14814/phy2.12419.

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Central and Peripheral Irisin Differentially Regulate Blood Pressure.

** The author use Phoenix’s  Irisin for their bioactivity assays

Zhang W, Chang L, Zhang C et al., Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2015 Mar 31. [Epub ahead of print]

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Irisin, a novel myokine, regulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells via AMPK.

** The author use Phoenix’s  Irisin for their bioactivity assays

Jeong Lee H, Ok Lee J, Kim N et al., Mol Endocrinol. 2015 Mar 31:me20141353. [Epub ahead of print]

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Endurance Training-Induced Increase in Circulating Irisin Levels Is Associated with Reduction of AbdominalVisceral Fat in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

Miyamoto-Mikami E, Sato K, Kurihara T et al., PLoS One. 2015 Mar 20;10(3):e0120354. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120354.

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Study on the Distribution and Elimination of the New Hormone Irisin In Vivo: New Discoveries Regarding Irisin.

Lv J, Pan Y, Li X et al., Horm Metab Res. 2015 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print]

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Elevated Circulating Levels of Irisin and the Effect of Metformin Treatment in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Li M1, Yang M, Zhou X, et al., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Feb 12:jc20142544. [Epub ahead of print]

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Irisin is associated with osteoporotic fractures independently of bone mineral density, body composition or daily physical activity.

Palermo A, Strollo R, Maddaloni E et al., Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014 Nov 17. doi: 10.1111/cen.12672.

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Irisin Promotes Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell Proliferation through the ERK Signaling Pathway and Partly Suppresses High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis.

Song H, Wu F, Zhang Y et al., PLoS One. 2014 Oct 22;9(10):e110273. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110273. eCollection 2014.

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Ursolic Acid-Induced Elevation of Serum Irisin Augments Muscle Strength During Resistance Training in Men

Hyun Seok Bang, Dae Yun Seo, Yong Min Chung et al., Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014 Oct;18(5):441-446.

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Thermogenic capacity is antagonistically regulated in classical brown and white subcutaneous fat depots by high-fat diet and endurance training in rats: Impact on whole-body energy expenditure.

Wu MV, Bikopoulos G, Hung S, Ceddia RB, J Biol Chem. 2014 Oct 25. pii: jbc.M114.591008.

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Serum irisin levels, precocious myocardial infarction, and healthy exceptional longevity.

Emanuele E, Minoretti P, Pareja-Galeano H et al., Am J Med. 2014 Sep;127(9):888-90. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.04.025.

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Plasma Irisin Depletion Under Energy Restriction is Associated With Improvements in Lipid Profile in Metabolic Syndrome Patients

Rocio de la Iglesia, Patricia Lopez-Legarrea, Ana B. Crujeiras et al., Clin Endocrinol. 2014;81(2):306-311.

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The Identification of Irisin in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid: Influence of Adiposity, Metabolic Markers and Gestational Diabetes.

Piya MK, Harte AL, Sivakumar K et al., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jan 7. [Epub ahead of print]

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Cardiac and skeletal muscle serum irisin responses to with or without water exercise in young and old male rats: cardiac muscle produces more irisin than skeletal muscle.

Aydin S, Kuloglu T, Aydin S et al., Peptides. 2013 Dec 14. pii: S0196-9781(13)00410-5. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2013.11.024. [Epub ahead of print]
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Are Skeletal Muscle & Adipose Tissue Fndc5 Gene Expression and Irisin Release Affected by Obesity, Diabetes and Exercise? In vivo & in vitro studies.

Kurdiova T, Balaz M, Vician M et al., J Physiol. 2013 Dec 2. [Epub ahead of print]

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Plasma irisin depletion under energy restriction is associated with improvements in lipid profile in metabolic syndrome patients.

de la Iglesia R, Lopez-Legarrea P, Crujeiras AB, et al., Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Dec 11. doi: 10.1111/cen.12383. [Epub ahead of print]

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Structure of irisin reveals a novel intersubunit β-sheet fibronectin (FNIII) dimer; implications for receptor activation.

Schumacher MA, Chinnam N, Ohashi T et al., J Biol Chem. 2013 Oct 10. 1074/jbc.M113.516641 [Epub ahead of print]

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Irisin Stimulates Browning of White Adipocytes through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 MAP Kinase and ERK MAP Kinase Signaling.

Zhang Y, Li R, Meng Y, Li S, et al., Diabetes. 2013 Oct 22. [Epub ahead of print]

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Alterations of irisin concentrations in saliva and serum of obese and normal-weight subjects, before and after 45min of a Turkish bath or running.

Aydin S, Kuloglu T, Yilmaz M, et al., Peptides. 2013 Oct 1. pii: S0196-9781(13)00324-0. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2013.09.011. [Epub ahead of print]

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Irisin mRNA and circulating levels in relation to other myokines in healthy and morbidly obese humans.

Vamvini MT, Aronis KN, Panagiotou G, et al., Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Sep 23. [Epub ahead of print]

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A Transient Elevated Irisin Blood Concentration in Response to Prolonged, Moderate Aerobic Exercise in Young Men and Women.

Kraemer RR, Shockett P, Webb ND, et al., Horm Metab Res. 2013 Sep 23. [Epub ahead of print]

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Circulating Irisin in Relation to Insulin Resistance and the Metabolic Syndrome.

Park KH, Zaichenko L, Brinkoetter M et al., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep 20. [Epub ahead of print]

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Common Genetic Variation in the Human FNDC5 Locus, Encoding the Novel Muscle-Derived 'Browning' Factor Irisin, Determines Insulin Sensitivity.

Staiger H, Böhm A, Scheler M et al, PLoS One. 2013 Apr 25;8(4):e61903. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061903. Print 2013.

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FNDC5 and irisin in humans: I. Predictors of circulating concentrations in serum and plasma and II. mRNA expression and circulating concentrations in response to weight loss and exercise.

Huh JY, Panagiotou G, Mougios V, et al, Metabolism. 2012 Sep 24. pii: S0026-0495(12)00332-0. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2012.09.002.

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Expression of the Irisin Precursor FNDC5 in Skeletal Muscle Correlates with Aerobic Exercise Performance in Patients with Heart Failure

Lecker S. et al., CIRCHEARTFAILURE.112.969543, September 20, 2012, doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.112.969543

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A PGC1-a-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis.

Boström et al., Nature. 2012 Jan 11. doi: 10.1038/nature10777. [Epub ahead of print]

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Mouse PeP: a novel peroxisomal protein linked to myoblast differentiation and development.

Ferrer-Martínez et al., Dev Dyn. 2002 Jun;224(2):154-67.

Mapping in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Tissue by
Irisin (42-112), C-terminal (Human, Rat, Mouse) - Antibody (H-067-17)

Western Blot Results

After SDS-PAGE, both the Irisin peptide (12kD Mw, Cat. #067-16) and Irisin (42-112) peptide (8 kD Mw, Cat. #067-17) can be transferred to PVDF membrane and have been detected by Irisin (42-112) (human, Rat, Mouse) IgG (Cat. No. G-067-17) with a diluted concentration at 1: 1500 from the stock (1 µg/µl).

Western Blot Analysis of Irisin immunoreactive bands for human plasma extracted with antibody conjugated magnetic bead

Irisin peptide (12kD Mw, Cat. #067-16), Irisin (42-112) peptide (8 kD Mw, Cat. #067-17) and Irisin precursor (22 kD Mw) can be detected with magnetic bead (MB-067-17).


Irisin, recombinant (Human, Rat, Mouse) EIA Kit (EK-067-29)

ED 50: 5.41 ng/ml
Minimum detection level: 1.29 ng/ml
Linear Range: 1.29-27.5 ng/ml      

  • Min. detectable concentration ~1.29 ng/mL
  • 5x more sensitive than existing EIA/ELISA
  • Less lot-to-lot variation than existing EIA/ELISA
  • Minimal cross-reactivity (~9%) with FNDC5



Irisin (Human, Rat, Mouse) EIA Kit (EK-067-16)

ED 50: 26.53 ng/ml
Minimum detection level: 6.8 ng/ml
Linear Range: 6.8 - 96.1 ng/ml


Irisin Recovery from Human Plasma Samples

     Note: *   Human plasma samples (collected with EDTA) were diluted
                   with assay buffer at 1:10

             **  Human plasma was spiked with three known concentrations
                   of Irisin. Data is presented after the un-spiked plasma value
                   is subtracted.

Irisin (Human, Rat, Mouse) RIA Kit (RK-067-16)

FNDC5, Isoform 4 (Human, Rat, Mouse) RIA Kit (RK-067-18)


FNDC5 (149-196) / c-terminal of FNDC5 (Human, Rat, Mouse) EIA Kit (EK-067-19)

EK-067-29;Irisin Synthesis;Irisin antibody publication;Irisin in Adipo;Irisin_fgf21


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