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Chromogranin A & its Derived Peptides
New Tumor Biomarker, Cardiovascular and Alzheimer-related Peptides

Chromogranin A is the precursor to several functional peptides including vasostatin, pancreastatin, catestatin and parastatin. These peptides negatively modulate the neuroendocrine function of the releasing cell (autocrine) or nearby cells (paracrine). Other peptides derived from chromogranin A with uncertain function include chromostatin, WE-14 and GE-25.

Vasostatin

Vasostatin I and Related Products

%053-33%;%053-35%;%053-32%

Pancreastatin

Pancreastatin is a 49 amino acid peptide produced by degradation of Chromo-granin A.  It inhibits Chromogranin A and Parathyroid Hormone release.  Pancreastatin also inhibits release of Somatostatin upon glucose stimulation.  It may also control carbohydrate metabolism and hyperglycemia.  Although there are no compounds with significant structural homology with Pancreastatin, there are minor similarities to Gastrin and Anti-Diuretic Hormone.  Pancreastatin reduces the the early phase of Glucose induced Insulin release.  Suppression of Insulin release upon Glucose stimulation is a characteristic feature of Type II Diabetes.  Pancreastatin could play an important therapeutic role in the treatment of diabetes.  Pancreastatin also inhibits release of Somatostatin.  It may also control carbohydrate metabolism and hyperglycemia.

Pancreastatin and Related Products

%Pancreastatin%

Catestatin

Catestatin is a 21-amino acid residue, cationic and hydrophobic peptide that is formed endogenously by proteolytic cleavage of its precursor chromogranin A, a major protein co-stored and co-released with catecholamines from the storage vesicles in adrenal chromaffin cells and adrenergic neurons. This peptide exhibits potent catecholamine release-inhibitory activity by acting on the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. It also stimulates histamine release from mast cells via heterotrimeric G-proteins in a receptor-independent manner. Plasma levels of catestatin are diminished not only in hypertensive patients but also in their still-normotensive offspring, indicating its role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Consistently, exogenous catestatin rescues hypertension in chromogranin A knockout mice and diminishes blood pressure responses to activation of sympathetic outflow in rats. These hypotensive actions of catestatin may be caused directly by autocrine inhibition of catecholamine release from the sympathoadrenal system and indirectly by paracrine stimulation of the potent vasodilator histamine release from mast cells.

Catestatin (Human) and Related Products

%053-27%

 

Catestatin (Mouse) and Related Products

%053-28%

 

Catestatin (Rat) and Related Products

%053-29%

Other Products

Chormogranin A and Related Products

%053-07%;%053-18%;%053-26%;%053-30%;%053-31%;%053-19%;%053-20%;%053-21%;%053-22%;%053-23%;%Serpinin%

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Chromogranin A as a biomarker in cardiovascular disease.

Chromogranin A is known as an important marker of neuroendocrine tumors. In cardiovascular medicine, however, chromogranin A measurement has only recently gained interest, since increased concentrations in the circulation are associated with risk of clinical worsening and death in patients with acute coronary syndromes or chronic heart failure. In this article, we summarize the current clinical data on chromogranin A as a biomarker in cardiovascular disease from high-risk conditions; for example, obesity, hypertension and diabetes, to overt heart failure. Biological activity of the various chromogranin A fragments, including the intact precursor itself, will not be covered in the present review. Instead, we highlight the complexity of chromogranin A as a plasma marker, where the protein is extensively and variably processed to a plethora of peptide fragments. Current immunological methods for clinical measurement differ dramatically with respect to both epitope choice and clinical validation.

Goetze JP, Alehagen U, Flyvbjerg A et al., Biomark Med. 2014 Jan;8(1):133-40. doi: 10.2217/bmm.13.102.

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Granins and catecholamines: functional interaction in chromaffin cells and adipose tissue.

Borges R, Dominguez N, Smith CB et al., Adv Pharmacol. 2013;68:93-113. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-411512-5.00005-1.

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Mass spectrometry identification of granins and other proteins secreted by neuroblastoma cells.

Rozek W, Kwasnik M, Debski J, et al., Tumour Biol. 2013 Jun;34(3):1773-81. doi: 10.1007/s13277-013-0716-0. Epub 2013 Mar 22.

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Chromogranin A and its fragments as regulators of small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm proliferation

Giovinazzo F, Schimmack S, Svejda B et al., PLoS One. 2013 Nov 19;8(11):e81111. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081111.

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Chromogranin peptides in brain diseases.

Willis M at el. J Neural Transm. 2011 May;118(5):727-35. Epub 2011 Apr 30.

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Role of pGlu-Serpinin, a Novel Chromogranin A-Derived Peptide in Inhibition of Cell Death.

Koshimizu, H. J. Mol. Neurosci. 2011 May 3. [Epub ahead of print].

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Serpinin: A Novel Chromogranin A-Derived, Secreted Peptide Up-Regulates Protease Nexin-1 Expression and Granule Biogenesis in Endocrine Cells.

Koshimizu H, Mol Endocrinol. 2011 Mar 24. [Epub ahead of print]

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Direct vasoactive effects of the chromogranin A (CHGA) peptide catestatin in humans in vivo.

Fung MM, Salem RM, Mehtani P et al., Clin Exp Hypertens. 2010;32(5):278-87. doi: 10.3109/10641960903265246.

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Chromogranin A: a new proposal for trafficking, processing and induction of granule biogenesis.

Koshimizu, H. Regul Pept. 2010 Feb 25;160(1-3):153-9. Epub 2009 Dec 16.

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A novel pathway of insulin sensitivity in chromogranin A null mice: a crucial role for pancreastatin in glucose homeostasis.

Gayen JR, Saberi M, Schenk S et al., J Biol Chem. 2009 Oct 16;284(42):28498-509. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.020636. Epub 2009 Aug 25.

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Elevated chromogranin A (CgA) serum levels in the patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2008 Mar 6 [Epub ahead of print]

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Plasma chromogranin A or urine fractionated metanephrines follow-up testing improves the diagnostic accuracy of plasma fractionated metanephrines for pheochromocytoma

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jan;93(1):91-5. Epub 2007 Oct 16

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Chromogranin A: a surprising link between granule biogenesis and hypertension

Kim et al. J. Clin. Invest. 115:1711-1713 (2005)

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Influence of vasostatins, the chromogranin A-derived peptides, on the working heart of the eel (Anguilla anguilla): negative inotropy and mechanism of action

Imbrogno S, et al. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2004 Oct;139(1):20-8

Mapping in Human Adrenal Medullary Tissue (H-053-27 / H-053-29)

    

Protocol for antibody staining

Tissue Sample

Human adrenal medullary

Fixative

10% formalin

Embedding

Paraffin

Negative Control

No primary antibody

Pretreatment

N/A

Blocking

3% H2O2, 2% Normal Goat Serum

Primary Antibody

Rabbit anti-Catestatin (Human) Antibody (Cat. No.: H-053-27)

Optimal Dilution

1: 500

Secondary Antibody

Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG, Biotinylated (1:400), 30 min

Amplification

Streptavidin-HRP (Vector), 1:400, 30 min

Detection System

HRP

Substrate

DAB (Sigma), 3 min

Counterstained

Hematoxylin, 30 sec


Tissue Sample

Human adrenal medullary tissues

Fixative

10% formalin

Embedding

Paraffin

Negative Control

No primary antibody

Pretreatment

N/A

Blocking

3% H2O2, 2% Normal Goat Serum

Primary Antibody

Rabbit Anti-Catestatin (Rat) Antibody (Cat. No.: H-053-29)

Optimal Dilution

1: 500

Secondary Antibody

Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG, Biotinylated (1:400), 30 min

Amplification

Streptavidin-HRP (Vector), 1:400, 30 min

Detection System

HRP

Substrate

DAB (Sigma), 3 min

Counterstained

Hematoxylin, 30 sec

Mapping in Human Pancreas Tissue (H-053-27 / H-053-28)

    

 

Protocol for antibody staining

Tissue Sample

Human pancreas tissues

Fixative

10% formalin

Embedding

Paraffin

Negative Control

No primary antibody

Pretreatment

N/A

Blocking

3% H2O2, 2% Normal Goat Serum

Primary Antibody

Rabbit Anti-Catestatin (Mouse) Antibody (Cat. No.: H-053-28)

Optimal Dilution

1: 500

Secondary Antibody

Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG, Biotinylated (1:400), 30 min

Amplification

Streptavidin-HRP (Vector), 1:400, 30 min

Detection System

HRP

Substrate

DAB (Sigma), 3 min

Counterstained

Hematoxylin, 30 sec


Tissue Sample

Human pancreas tissues

Fixative

10% formalin

Embedding

Paraffin

Negative Control

No primary antibody

Pretreatment

N/A

Blocking

3% H2O2, 2% Normal Goat Serum

Primary Antibody

Rabbit anti-Catestatin (Human) Antibody (Cat. No.: H-053-27)

Optimal Dilution

1: 500

Secondary Antibody

Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG, Biotinylated (1:400), 30 min

Amplification

Streptavidin-HRP (Vector), 1:400, 30 min

Detection System

HRP

Substrate

DAB (Sigma), 3 min

Counterstained

Hematoxylin, 30 sec

Western Blot Analysis of Chromogranin A in Rat Kidney Tissue (H-053-27)

2

Human Catestatin RIA Kit (RK-053-27)

    

 

Rat (RK-053-28) and Mouse (RK-053-29) Catestatin RIA Kits

    

 

Human (EK-053-27) and Rat (EK-053-29) Catestatin EIA Kits

    

 

Human Chromogranin A, Prepro (393-426) (EK-053-30) and Human Serpinin (EK-053-45) EIA Kits

 

 

Human (FEK-053-27) and Rat (FEK-053-29) Catestatin Fluorescent EIA Kits

    

Human (FEK-053-45) Serpinin Fluorescent EIA Kits


 

 

 

Tips: See More Research Abstracts, Antibody Stainings, Immunoassay Kits Curves and Sequences by clicking the tabs on the top.

serpinin;WE-14;%alzheimer%

%Chromogranin A%;%Vasostatin%;%Catestatin%;%Pancreastatin%;%Serpinin%


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